eidetic image 心象hha
eidetic imagery 心象记忆hha
photographic memory 照相记忆（我理解是心象记忆中的一种，心象记忆不仅仅是对图象的记忆，包括对声音，听觉，嗅觉等的记忆）hha
visual imagery 视觉印象hha
Is there such a thing as a photographic memory? And if so, can it be learned?hha
Inthe scientific literature, the t eidetic imagery comes closest towhat is popularly called photographic memory. The most common way toidentify eidetikers (as people with eidetic imagery are often called)is by the Picture Elicitation Method. In it, an unfamiliar picture isplaced on an easel and a person carefully scans the entire scene. After30 seconds have elapsed, the picture is removed from view, and theperson is asked to continue to look at the easel and to report anythingthat they can observe. People possessing eidetic imagery willconfidently claim to still "see" the picture. In addition, they canscan it and examine different parts of it just as if the picture werestill physically present. Consequently, one of the hallmarks of eideticimagery is that eidetikers use the present tense when answeringquestions about the missing picture, and they can report inextraordinary detail what it contained.hha
Eideticimages differ from other forms of visual imagery in several importways. First, an eidetic image is not simply a long afterimage, sinceafterimages move around when you move your eyes and are usually adifferent color than the original image. (For example, a fh cameracan produce afterimages: the fh is bright white, but the afterimageis a black dot, and the dot moves around every time you move youreyes.) In contrast, a true eidetic image doesn‘t move as you move youreyes, and it is in the same color as the original picture. Second, acommon visual image that we can all cre from memory (such as animage of a bedroom) does not have the chararistics of most eideticimages, which almost always fade away involuntarily and part by part.Also, it is not possible to control which parts of an eidetic imagefade and which remain visible. Unlike common visual images cred frommemory, most eidetic images t between about half a minute to severalminutes only, and it is possible to voluntarily destroy an eideticimage forever by the simple act of blinking intentionally. Furthore,once gone from view, rarely can an eidetic image ever be retrieved.hha
“eideticimage”在几个重要方面上不同于“visual imagery”。第一、一个“eidetic image”并非是个“longafterimage”那样简单，因为“afterimage”会在你移动自己的眼球时移动，并且通常会是相较原象不同的颜色。（例如，一台闪光照相机能引起残像：那个闪光是亮白的，但残象会是个黑点，并且随着你移动自己的眼球，那个点会跟着移动。）与此相反，一个真实的“eideticimage”不会随着你的眼球移动而移动，而且它的颜色跟原象是一样的。第二、一个常见的大家都能从记忆中产生的“visualimagery”（如（心目中）一间卧室的印象）并不具有大多数“eideticimage”所具有的典型特征，它们几乎总是一个接一个地非我们所愿地逐渐消失。同样，并不可能控制一个“eideticimage”的某部份淡化和保持清晰可见。跟通常的由记忆产生的“visual image”不同，大多数“eideticimage”只能持续半分钟到几分钟之间的时间，并且，通过一个简单的有意眨眼动作，是有可能随意且永久地破坏一个“eideticimage”的。此外，一旦从“视野”里消失，“eidetic image”总是能够罕见地被恢复。hha
Youmight expect that an individual who claims to still see a picture afterit has been removed would be able to have a pect memory of theoriginal picture. After all, a pect memory is what is usuallyimplied by the commonly used phrase "photographic memory." As it turnsout, however, the accuracy of many eidetic images is far from pect.In fact, besides often being sketchy on some details, it is not unusualfor eidetikers to alter visual details and even to invent some thatwere never in the original. This suggests that eidetic images arecertainly not photographic in nature but instead are reconstrud frommemory and can be influenced like other memories (both visual andnonvisual) by cognitive biases and expectations.hha
The vast majority of the people who have beenidentified as possessing eidetic imagery are children. The prevalenceestims of the ability among preadolescents range from about 2percent to 10 percent. And it is an equal-opportunityphenomenon--there‘s no gender difference in who is likely to be aneidetiker. Although it is certainly controversial, some researchersalso believe that eidetic imagery occurs more frequently in certainpopulations of the mentally retarded (specifically, in individualswhose retardation most likely stems from biological, rather thanenvironmental, causes) and also among geriatric populations. With a fewnotable exceptions, however, most research has shown that virtually noadults m to possess the ability to form eidetic images.hha
Whyshould this be so? No one really knows, although part of the answer maybe reld to a rather obscure fact about the development of suchimages. Research has shown that if a person verbalizes during the timehe or she is scanning the original picture, this interes witheidetic image formation. This utterance could be something as minglyinnocuous as covertly saying "Saint Bernard" upon ing a large dogduring the initial scanning process. So perhaps part of the reason whyit is so rare to find older eidetikers is that adults are much morelikely than children to try to both verbally and visually encode thepicture into memory. If this is true, then it means that adults aremore likely to disrupt the formation of eidetic images and are thusmuch less likely to be identified as having eidetic imagery, even ifthey really do possess the ability.
Canyou acquire eidetic imagery through learning? Personally, I doubt it.To my knowledge, however, there have been no attempts to try to teachthe ability to anyone. Although it is clear that eidetic imageryexists, psychologists still do not know why it occurs, what brainmechanisms may be responsible, or why it is found in such a smallproportion of the population. It certainly is a fascinating phenomenon.
Clipped at 08:31 AM on 11/29/08
Wow... I have always been able to pages that I focus on long after - like years after. I can remember study pages from grade school, and I'm 31 years old. I can remember my friend's dad's credit card number that I memorized by staring at it when I was 12. I only got a 3.9 GPA, but didn't only use my memory - I was in a liberal arts college, so I had to write a ton of papers for my first degree. Memory doesn't help too much on that front.
I also remember what page quotes are on, and whether the quote is on the top, middle or bottom of the page. I also thought this was completely normal, and that everyone could do it until maybe 1 year ago, when my roomm started telling me that what I was doing was unusual.
I'm not sure it's directly reld to the eidetic memory, but can you guys read and undersd technical mrial that you have not studied or been taught?
I also use something like the same pattern of visualization to help me with undersding theoretical systems. I am able to hold complex and large theories in my 'mind's eye', and can manipul them to identify flaws in assumptions, logical connections, etc. Do you find that you can gener these kind of 'conceptual images' as well?
Anyway, it's very cool to hear from other people who have this memory ability. As I said, I only recently realized that there was anything unusual about my memory, and Googled "eidetic" this morning before finding this article.
作者介绍：Alan Searleman, a professor of psychology at St. Lawrence University and co-author of the college textbook Memory from a Broader Perspective, explains.